10/31/2020 2:30:20 PM
November 2020


INTENTION: That the progress of robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) may always serve humankind.

Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humans


 Experts say the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) will make most people better off over the next decade, but many have concerns about how advances in AI will affect what it means to be human, to be productive and to exercise free will.


 Digital life is augmenting human capacities and disrupting eons-old human activities. Code-driven systems have spread to more than half of the world's inhabitants in ambient information and connectivity, offering previously unimagined opportunities and unprecedented threats. As emerging algorithm-driven artificial intelligence continues to spread, will people be better off than they are today?


 Some 979 technology pioneers, innovators, developers, business and policy leaders, researchers and activists answered this question in a canvassing of experts conducted in the summer of 2018.


 The experts predicted networked artificial intelligence will amplify human effectiveness but also threaten human autonomy, agency and capabilities. They spoke of the wide-ranging possibilities; that computers might match or even exceed human intelligence and capabilities on tasks such as complex decision-making, reasoning and learning, sophisticated analytics and pattern recognition, visual acuity, speech recognition and language translation. They said "smart" systems in communities, in vehicles, in buildings and utilities, on farms and in business processes will save time, money and lives and offer opportunities for individuals to enjoy a more-customized future.


 Many focused their optimistic remarks on health care and the many possible applications of AI in diagnosing and treating patients or helping senior citizens live fuller and healthier lives. They were also enthusiastic about AI's role in contributing to broad public-health programmes built around massive amounts of data that may be captured in the coming years about everything from personal genomes to nutrition. Additionally, a number of these experts predicted that AI would abet long-anticipated changes in formal and informal education systems.


 Yet, most experts, regardless of whether they are optimistic or not, expressed concerns about the long-term impact of these new tools on the essential elements of being human. All respondents in this non-scientific canvassing were asked to elaborate on why they felt AI would leave people better off or not. Many shared deep worries, and many also suggested pathways towards solutions.


 By Hann Anderson and Lee Rainie

 Pew Research Centre


Humanity and ethics must be at centre of (AI) technology


 The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in science and medicine must be guided by ethical standards that place humanity and the pursuit of the common good first, Pope Francis said.


 "The ethical development of algorithms - 'algor-ethics' - can be a bridge enabling those principles to enter concretely into digital technologies through an effective cross-disciplinary dialogue," the pope said Feb. 28, 2020, in a message to participants in the general assembly of the Pontifical Academy for Life.


 Moreover, he said, "human rights represent an important point of convergence in the search for common ground." The Pontifical Academy for Life sponsored a major workshop on "Robo-ethics: Humans, Machines and Health" at the Vatican Feb. 25-26, 2020, that focused on the use of robots and AI, specifically in medicine and health care.


 The event was followed by the papal academy's general assembly Feb. 26-28, which was dedicated to studying the impact, challenges and safeguards needed for the use of artificial intelligence, and implications that AI raises in the areas of ethics, legal rights and health care.


 On the assembly's final day, the leaders of Microsoft and IBM - two of the world's leading developers of AI software - as well as representatives of the European Parliament and the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organisation, signed a charter calling for an ethical framework and guidelines for the field of AI.


 In his address, the pope thanked the participants of the general assembly for addressing the impact of artificial intelligence in medicine, economy and society where important decisions already are "now the result of human will and a series of algorithmic inputs."


 "A personal act is now the point of convergence between an input that is truly human and an automatic calculus, with the result that it becomes increasingly complicated to understand its object, foresee its effects and define the contribution of each factor," he said.


 Learning to adapt to the benefits and potential pitfalls of new technology is nothing new, he said, pointing to innovations such as the steam engine, electricity or the invention of the printing press, which revolutionised the way humanity stores and shares information.


 Yet, the Pope added, while today's advances in science and medicine continue to "instill a sense of unlimited possibilities," it has also led to "blurring boundaries that hitherto were considered clearly distinguishable: for example, between inorganic and organic matter, between the real and the virtual, between stable identities and events in constant interconnection."


 Dangers such as algorithms used to "extract data that enable mental and relational habits to be controlled," however, should "not detract from the immense potential that new technologies offer. We find ourselves before a gift from God, a resource that can bear good fruits," the Pope said.


 Francis also expressed concern about increasing use of artificial intelligence in biological sciences and warned that the "correlation and integration between life that is 'lived' and life that is 'experienced' cannot be dismissed in favor of a simple ideological calculation of functional performance and sustainable costs."


 "The ethical problems that emerge from the ways that these new devices can regulate the birth and destiny of individuals call for a renewed commitment to preserve the human quality of our shared history," the Pope said.


 He also said that the social teaching of the Catholic Church can make "a critical contribution" to the goal of developing ethical standards that protect "the dignity of the person, justice, subsidiarity and solidarity."


 "These are expressions of our commitment to be at the service of every individual in his or her integrity and of all people, without discrimination or exclusion," the pope said. "The complexity of the technological world demands of us an increasingly clear ethical framework, so as to make this commitment truly effective."


 by Junno Arocho Esteves, Catholic News Service

 Feb 28, 2020





二零二零年 十一月《和平》

9月、10月、11月號,一連三期的特稿,乃譯自前耶穌會總會長倪勝民神父(Adolfo Nicolas SJ)的隨筆,題為《從分心到專心:一個歸心的邀請》。







宗教領域淺薄的分心:對風俗、習慣、 傳統、禮節、敬拜、立場、理論的支持或反對

耶穌會士都受過長時間的學術培育, 所以這類分心尤其影響我們。當我們的知識增長,沒有融入到祈禱、敬拜和使徒工作 當中,我們便受其影響。這些分心特別令人不安,因為是發生在教會內,在教會的信仰生活當中。我們傾向認為凡與自己的理念不符,便沒有意義;即如果我找不到「意義」,就是「無意義」。而「無意義」令我們相當難耐。然後,我們會採「不全則無/all or nothing」的典型不成熟立場,說服自己:「如果我不同意,它一定是無意義」。聖依納爵以「與聖教會思想一致」的條文,消除這種傾向。他不在乎什麼對他有意義,而是什麼對人有意義,對他同代的樸實人、對教會的樸實信徒有意義。我們有時會自誇:「我永遠不會讚賞我不喜歡的」。依納爵告訴我們要讚賞能幫助人敬拜、祈禱、感覺走近天主和教會的一切。他寫下的條文有強烈的牧民色彩和方向,藉此告訴我們,不要因自我、個人的思想觀念、喜惡、見解和神學而分心,但要顧及在天主的臨在中生活行事的人。忘掉自我,為這些人的生命站起來,表達立場。

 偉大的耶穌會士集整合、投入、貫徹、 專注、毫不分心於一身


•創始人:依納爵 (Ignatius),沙勿略 (Xavier),法伯爾 (Favre) ...…
•創作人:安切塔 (Anchieta),維埃拉 (Vieira),郎世寧 (Castiglione),波素 (Pozzo) ...…
•先鋒:利瑪竇 (Ricci),德諾比利 (De Nobili),貝巴 (Brebeuf),德日進 (Teilhard),阿魯伯 (Arrupe) ...…
•神秘者:依納爵 (Ignatius),沙勿略 (Xavier), 哥倫比亞 (Colombiere),德日進 (Teilhard) ...…




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